Animal Welfare

Scientific Papers

© Rory Harper

The visitor effect in zoo-housed apes: the variable effect on behaviour of visitor number and noise (Hashmi & Sullivan, 2020)

October 2020

The visitor effects on zoo-housed apes (gorillas, chimpanzees and gibbons) were investigated in a study in JZAR:

✔ Noise levels increased with visitor numbers;

✔ Some behavioural changes suggested a potential negative effect on welfare;

✔ Intra- and inter-specific differences in reactions to the public;

✔ The visitor effect is complex and influenced by multiple factors.


Photo credit: Blackpool Zoo

Using longitudinal data to evaluate the behavioural impact of a switch to carcass feeding on an Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) (Finch et al., 2020)

October 2020

What is the long-term behavioural impact of carcass feeding on zoo-housed Asiatic lions? A lioness at Chester Zoo showed the following behavioural changes 12 months after the diet change:
Reduction in pacing;
Increase in resting behaviour;
Increase in feeding-related behaviours, shortly after & 12 months after the diet change.


Photo credit: Chester Zoo

Longitudinal Improvements in Zoo-Housed Elephant Welfare: A Case Study at ZSL Whipsnade Zoo
(Finch et al., 2020)

November 2020

New study assessed the welfare improvements of the Asian elephants at ZSL Whipsnade Zoo, using data from their species-specific behavioural monitoring programme. Some of their findings include:
Species-appropriate levels of feeding;
Low levels of stereotypic behaviours;
Rare agonistic behaviour between group members;
Positive social associations & interactions between group members.

Specialised for the Swamp, Catered for in Captivity? A Cross-Institutional Evaluation of Captive Husbandry for Two Species of Lechwe (Rose & Rowden, 2020)

October 2020

There is a new published paper on zoo husbandry practices in lechwe - a wetlands social antelope that is understudied in captivity:
Similar male:female ratios in captive and wild herds;
Enclosures usually included wetland areas, which were rarely managed;
Vegetation cover was limited;
Similar diets between zoos, but different from guidelines;
Abnormal behaviours reported but causes not identified.


Photo credit: San Diego Zoo

A Retrospective Study of Macropod Progressive Periodontal Disease (“Lumpy Jaw”) in Captive Macropods across Australia and Europe: Using Data from the Past to Inform Future Macropod Management (Rendle et al., 2020)

October 2020

New research looked into "lumpy jaw" disease in captive macropods:
High mortality (62.5% for Australian & European institutions);
Risk of developing the disease increased with age;
Different incidence rates & risk of infection between institutions and geographic regions;
Recommendations to reduce disease risk were provided.


Photo credit: Perth Zoo

A persistent abnormal repetitive behaviour in a false water cobra (Hydrodynastes gigas) (Michaels et al., 2020)

November 2020

Fresh new paper looked into stereotypic behaviour in captive false water cobras:
Observed fixed pattern of movement against viewing window identified as potential stereotypy;
Snake spent some time in this repetitive behaviour, which was also reported by another zoo;
The enrichment used did not reduce the behaviour's frequency or changed the snakes' use of the enclosure.


Photo credit: Smithsonian's National Zoo

The 2020 Five Domains Model: Including Human–Animal Interactions in Assessments of Animal Welfare (Mellor et al., 2020)

October 2020

The Five Domains Model of animal welfare assessment has just been updated in a new paper:
Five Domains: (1) Nutrition, (2) Physical Environment, (3) Health, (4) Behavioural Interactions, (5) Mental State;
Update adds human-animal interactions to the model;
Applicable to all animal caretakers, including zoo keepers, researchers & veterinary staff!

The Use of a Species-Specific Health and Welfare Assessment Tool for the Giant Pacific Octopus, Enteroctopus dofleini (Holst & Miller-Morgan, 2020)

September 2020

A new study has proposed a health & welfare assessment tool for the Giant Pacific octopus:

 Categories assessed: external appearance, behaviour & signs of stress and disease;

 Severity score system;

 Upward trend in score identified within 3-4 weeks of death - predictor?


Photo credit: Aquarium of the Bay

Seasonal and Daily Activity of Two Zoo-Housed Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos horribilis)

August 2020

New study investigated activity patterns in two zoo-housed grizzly bears:
Most inactivity recorded in winter;
Stereotypies and general activity emerged in spring and summer;
Stereotypies more frequent in the morning.

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